The first broad-band X-ray view of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 Ton S180

Matzeu, G. A., Nardini, E., Parker, M. L., Reeves, J. N., Braito, V., Porquet, D., Middei, R., Kammoun, E., Lusso, E., Alston, W. N., Giustini, M., Lobban, A. P., Joyce, A. M., Igo, Z., Ebrero, J., Ballo, L., Santos Lleó, M., Schartel, N. 2020. The first broad-band X-ray view of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 Ton S180. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 497, 2, 2352-2370,

We present joint XMM–Newton and NuSTAR observations of the ‘bare’ narrow-line Seyfert 1 Ton S180 (z = 0.062), carried out in 2016 and providing the first hard X-ray view of this luminous galaxy. We find that the 0.4–30 keV band cannot be self-consistently reproduced by relativistic reflection models, which fail to account simultaneously for the soft and hard X-ray emission. The smooth soft excess prefers extreme blurring parameters, confirmed by the nearly featureless nature of the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) spectrum, while the moderately broad Fe K line and the modest hard excess above 10 keV appear to arise in a milder gravity regime. By allowing a different origin of the soft excess, the broad-band X-ray spectrum and overall spectral energy distribution (SED) are well explained by a combination of (a) direct thermal emission from the accretion disc, dominating from the optical to the far/extreme UV; (b) Comptonization of seed disc photons by a warm (kTe ∼ 0.3 keV) and optically thick (τ ∼ 10) corona, mostly contributing to the soft X-rays; (c) Comptonization by a standard hot (⁠kTe≳100kTe≳100 keV) and optically thin (τ < 0.5) corona, responsible for the primary X-ray continuum; and (d) reflection from the mid/outer part of the disc. The two coronae are suggested to be rather compact, with Rhot≲Rwarm≲10rgRhot≲Rwarm≲10rg⁠. Our SED analysis implies that Ton S180 accretes at super-Eddington rates. This is a key condition for the launch of a wind, marginal (i.e. 3.1σ significance) evidence of which is indeed found in the RGS spectrum.

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