A new free-floating planet in the Upper Scorpius association

K. Peña Ramírez, V. J. S. Béjar, M. R. Zapatero Osorio. 2016. A new free-floating planet in the Upper Scorpius association. Astronomy and Astrophysics 586, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201527425

We report on a deep photometric survey covering an area of 1.17 deg(2) in the young Upper Scorpius stellar association using VIMOS Iz and UKIDSS ZJHK data that was taken with several years in between. The search for the least massive population of Upper Scorpius (similar to 5-10 Myr, 145 pc) is performed on the basis of various optical and infrared color color and color magnitude diagrams, including WISE photometry, in the magnitude interval J = 14.5-19 mag (completeness), which corresponds to substellar masses from 0.028 through 0.004 M-circle dot at the age and distance of Upper Scorpius. We also present the proper motion analysis of the photometric candidates, finding that two objects successfully pass all photometric and astrometric criteria for membership in the young stellar association. One of them, USco J155150.2 213457, is a new discovery. We obtained low resolution, near-infrared spectroscopy (R similar to 450, 0.85-2.35 mu m) of this new finding using the FIRE instrument. We confirmed its low-gravity atmosphere expected for an Upper Scorpius member (weak alkaline lines, strong VO absorption, peaked H-band pseudocontinuum). By comparison with spectroscopic standards, we derive a spectral type of L6 +/- 1, and estimate a mass of approximate to 0.008-0.010 M-circle dot for USco J155150.2-213457. The colors and spectral slope of this object resemble those of other young, cool members of Upper Scorpius and sigma Orionis (similar to 3 Myr) and field, high gravity dwarfs of related classification in contrast with the very red indices of field, low gravity, L-type dwarfs of intermediate age. USco J155150.2-213457, which does not show infrared flux excesses up to 4.5 mu m, becomes one of the least massive and latest type objects known in the entire Upper Scorpius stellar association.

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