Zaparico, I., Duque, J. F. M., Bugosh, N., Laronne, J. B., Ortega, A., Molina, A., Martín Moreno, C., Nicolau, J. M., Castillo, L. S. 2018. Geomorphic reclamation for reestablishment of landform stability at a watershed scale in mined sites: The Alto Tajo Natural Park, Spain. Ecological Engineering 111, 100-116, DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.11.011
This research describes a geomorphic-based process of mining reclamation carried out at the El Machorro mine (at the edge of the Alto Tajo Natural Park, East Central Spain) and its monitoring for five years (2012-2017). The GeoFluv T method implemented by the Natural Regrade software has been used to design small watersheds as a mining reclamation topographical solution. The procedure included: (i) finding a suitable reference area with stable landforms and acquiring inputs from them; (ii) designing two first-order stream watersheds; (iii) building the planned landscape; and (iv) monitoring the hydrological and erosive -sedimentary response of the reclaimed watersheds. This process is in itself a contribution to global advancement of reclamation best practices, because there are very few geomorphic-based mining reclamation examples, and even fewer that include their multiannual monitoring. Sediment yields were obtained comparing Digital Elevation Models (DEM) acquired by Total Station (TS), Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), differential Global Positioning System (GPS) and topographic reconstructions (interpretations). An H-flume with turbidity and water pressure sensors allowed quantifying runoff and suspended sediment. Sediment yield progressively decreased with time attaining a current low value (4.02 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)). Water discharge and suspended sediment concentration have also decreased with time.