E. Solano, E. L. Martín, J. A. Caballero, C. Rodrigo, R. E. Angulo, J. Alcaniz, M. Borges Fernandes, A. J. Cenarro, D. Cristóbal-Hornillos, R. A. Dupke, E. Alfaro, A. Ederoclite, F. Jiménez-Esteban, J. A. Hernandez-Jimenez, C. Hernández-Monteagudo, R. Lopes de Oliveira, C. López-Sanjuan, A. Marín-Franch, C. Mendes de Oliveira, M. Moles, A. Orsi, L. Schmidtobreick, D. Sobral, L. Sodré, J. Varela and H. Vázquez Ramió. 2019. J-PLUS: Discovery and characterisation of ultracool dwarfs using Virtual Observatory tools. Astronomy and Astrophysics 627 DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201935256
Ultracool dwarfs are objects with spectral types equal to or later than M7. Most of them have been discovered using wide-field imaging surveys. The Virtual Observatory has proven to be very useful for efficiently exploiting these astronomical resources.
Aims. We aim to validate a Virtual Observatory methodology designed to discover and characterise ultracool dwarfs in the J-PLUS photometric survey. J-PLUS is a multiband survey carried out with the wide-angle T80Cam optical camera mounted on the 0.83m telescope JAST/T80 in the Observatorio Astrofisico de Javalambre. We make use of the Internal Data Release covering 528 deg(2).
Methods. We complemented J-PLUS photometry with other catalogues in the optical and infrared using VOSA, a Virtual Observatory tool that estimates physical parameters from the spectral energy distribution fitting to collections of theoretical models. Objects identified as ultracool dwarfs were distinguished from background M giants and highly reddened stars using parallaxes and proper motions from Gaia DR2.
Results. We identify 559 ultracool dwarfs, ranging from i = 16.2 mag to i = 22.4 mag, of which 187 are candidate ultracool dwarfs not previously reported in the literature. This represents an increase in the number of known ultracool dwarfs of about 50% in the region of the sky we studied, particularly at the faint end of our sensitivity, which is interesting as reference for future wide and deep surveys such as Euclid. Three candidates are interesting targets for exoplanet surveys because of their proximity (distances less than 40 pc). We also analysed the kinematics of ultracool dwarfs in our catalogue and found evidence that it is consistent with a Galactic thin-disc population, except for six objects that might be members of the thick disc.
Conclusion. The results we obtained validate the proposed methodology, which will be used in future J-PLUS and J-PAS releases. Considering the region of the sky covered by the Internal Data Release used in this work, we estimate that 3000-3500 new ultracool dwarfs will be discovered at the end of the J-PLUS project.